In 2012 social debate and political battles over domestic violence, rape and gender equality repeatedly made headlines in both South Korea and the United States. In Korea, the rape and murder of kidnapped woman cast a spotlight on weak state and police enforcement of laws to protect citizens. In the U.S., politicians debated whether or not to reauthorize the Violence Against Women Act and a number of politicians embarrassed themselves into election losses with absurd statements about rape. Most disturbingly, some states cut their funding to domestic violence prevention and support programs.
Domestic Violence and Music 가정폭력과 음악
Two powerful music videos portray domestic violence in 2012. The vocalists Zia and P!nk highlight the complicated emotional and physical space we navigate when confronting or recovering from domestic violence.
2012년에 매우 힘이 넘치는 영화 같은 뮤직비디오에서는 지아와 핑크가 가정폭력의 복잡한 감정적이며 신체적인 고통을 보여준다.
Zia - For a year 지아 -일 년째
P!nk – Try 핑크 – 트라이
Domestic Violence and History 가정폭력과 역사
Domestic violence is a major problem in contemporary society in Korea and the United States, and in regions all over the world. When I read Choson Court rulings on domestic violence, rape, adultery and spousal murder, I am reminded that centuries ago the legal system did not recognize women’s rights and we appealed to the patriarchal rule of the father or pre-modern state local officials to abide by virtues of justice and morality and requested that they not abuse the people. There wasn’t a strong social mindset that recognized the rights of women and children, nor adequate tools of state to enforce human rights.
가정폭력은 한국, 미국, 세계적으로 커다란 이슈이다. 조선시대에 처를 살해한 사건자료를 읽으면서 현대사회의 인권문제에 대한 제도가 퇴보되어간다고 생각됐다. . 옛날에 우리나라는 국가나 경찰대신 가장의 도덕와 공평성을 통해 그 가정의 삶의 질이 결정되었다. 이러한 관습은 힘 없는 사람들은 자비를 구해야했다.
For example, Choson royal court records include the case of Lee Geun-Bin. In this case a wife was beaten to death with the heavy cast-iron style lid from a cookery. The case shows obvious domestic violence. She may have been beaten not only by her husband, but her father-in-law and brother-in-law whom lived in the same home. The unnamed wife attempted to flee to her natal home, but she lost strength and died. A pattern of violence had already existed in the home, but in those days a wife was isolated from society and there were few opportunities for a wife to appeal for help and the private home was ruled by the father. The Choson records reveal a number of other cases in which wives were murdered by their husbands, with rare and light punishments ordered by the royal court.
이군빈의 재판에 보면 실망스럽게도 너무나 명백한 가정 폭력이다. 그 자료에 따르면 “부자의 공초에, “부축하여 앉혔다”는 말로 미루어보면, 그녀가 힘이 빠져서 집에 다다르기 전에 인사불성명되었음을 알 수 있”다고 이군빈의 거짓말로 가정폭력의 사실 보여준다: “솥뚜껑으로 때렸다”고 말했다. 조선시대의 가부체제 아래에 있는 학대의 희생자들은 도움이 받는 것이 힘들었고 가장은 자신의 집안에서 왕처럼 통치했다.
However, we have since developed state-managed systems to improve the enforcement and protection of the rights of all people, such as police, courts and public education. In some regions, there is not a functioning system to protect or enforce these rights and societies still rely on patriarchal benevolence, for example when raped women or women who have sex outside of marriage are murdered, so-called ‘honor killings’ by relatives to ‘preserve’ the family ‘honor’ that was supposedly tarnished by her ‘impurity.’
하지만 근대 국가 아래 우리는 국가관리의 인권, 경찰, 병원, 편파적이지 않은 재판, 사회 복지를 향상시킨 체제가 만들어졌다. 그러나 인권존중이 되지않는 몇몇 국가에서는 지금도 성폭행 피해자와 간통했던 여성이 명예살인이나 공개처형당하지만 전세계사회는 변화되고 있다.
Domestic Violence and Society 가정폭력과 사회
In Korea, society still struggles to overcome the hierarchical power of the patriarch when the police do not enter the home without his permission. We can see in the Sokcho case last year that a woman could be raped and murdered while the police are ineffective. Society did not pay adequate attention to the problem of domestic violence, and individually we might ‘look the other way’ and ignore violence in our communities. However, in December 2012 the Korean National Police Agency granted new powers, “the new rule now allows police to enter even if a home owner denies the police request. The police expect the measure will help save victims who are afraid of revenge attacks after calling for help.”
현대 한국사회에서도 가정의 가부적인 계급 사회을 위해 발버둥 치고 있다. 작년의 속초 성폭행 사건에서 보면 효력 없는 경찰들이 가장[아부지]부터의 허가 없는 경우에 집을 들러가지 않았고 여자가 살해 일어났다. 비단 그뿐 아니라 우리는 자주 가정 폭력을 무시했다.
Meanwhile, in the United States, several states have already cut their budget for domestic violence programs, and more will do so next year:
“Domestic violence calls are second only to burglary for law enforcement. Police regard them as among the most dangerous in terms of officer safety because of the violent emotions often in play when they arrive at the scene. Arrests and prosecution are part of the picture, but only a part. Victims need options, shelter, counseling, financial assistance, and education. Victims who want desperately to leave violent domestic situations without police intervention often need those resources even more. It is in this context that states across America, faced with mounting budget crises, are slashing domestic violence programs and funding. The most widely reported has been the use of the Governor’s veto pen in California. But domestic violence prevention and service funding has also met the budget ax in states like Massachusetts, Oklahoma, Arizona, Missouri and others.”
Worse, some states such as Kansas have cut response calls by police, putting many people in danger of abuse and death from domestic violence:
“Busted budgets have forced tough decisions by governments and law enforcement officials nationwide, but the Shawnee County district attorney's move to stop investigating domestic abuse and other misdemeanor cases has angered victims' advocates who say austerity has gone too far.”
In the United States, some conservative politicians call for ‘small government’ but the consequence could be a return to ‘rule by the father’ wherein women must once again plead for health and life, rather than know these are enforced and protected rights.
미국에서 어느 지방 등에서 가정 폭력 예방하는 프로그램의 예산을 삭감했고 내년에 더 다른 지방에서도 예산을 절감하려고한다. 더군나 미국 캔자스나 다른 지역에서 예산절감때문에 가정폭력을 신고하여도 경찰은 출동할수 없고 도움을 받을 수 없게되었다. 집에서 가정 폭력 당하는따라서 시민들의 건강와 안전 위험에 직면해서 가정 폭력으로 부터 피살될 수 있다. 미국에서도 보수적인 사람들이 ‘작은 국가’가 필요로 하다고 주장하고 있다. 가정폭력예방 예산 삭감이나 국가의 인권에 관한 무관심은 그러나 이는 가부장제의 통치로 되돌아가는 결과를 나을 것이다. 그래서 여성들이 다시 건강, 안보, 삶을 위해 가장에게 의지하고 무가치한 존재로 보일 것이다.
Here in Korea, resources for domestic violence and sexual violence are available, please reach out if you are need of support: Seoul Rape Medical Treatment and National Police Hospital (located on Line 3, exit 1)